Glossary

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· A ·

AAPA

American Association of Port Authorities, an alliance of the ports of Canada, the Caribbean, Latin America and the united States, headquartered in Alexandria, Va.

AAR

Association of American Railroads, headquartered in Washington, D.C.

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping, classification society dating from 1862, headquartered in Houston, Texas

AFDC

Alternative Fuels Data Center, run by the U.S. Department of Energy

AHTS

Anchor Handling Tug Supply vessels handle anchors for oil rigs, tow them to location, anchor them up and, in a few cases, serve as an ERRV (Wikipedia)

AMP

Alternative Maritime Power, akin to cold ironing

ANGA

America’s Natural Gas Alliance, an organization of utility, E&P and other companies promoting an increased use of natural gas

ARRA

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (of 2009), a major source of funding for clean fuel projects, primarily but nort exclusively through the U.S. Department of Energy recovery.gov

ARB = CARB

California Air Resources Board

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

ASLRRA

American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association, headquartered in Washington, D.C.

azimuth thruster

an arrangement of propellers that can be rotated so as to eliminate the need for a rudder

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· B ·

biogas

generally the raw, unrefined precursor to biomethane, available from sources including animal waste (manure), human waste (municipal sewage), food waste and landfills.

biomethane

methane derived from renewable sources, usually organic waste, generally upgraded to pipeline or vehicle quality, sometimes called biogas

boiloff

vaporization of a substance when its temperature rises beyond its boiling point; LNG boiloff has for decades been used to supplement the conventional fuel that powers LNG tanker ships

bunker

fuel for a ship

bunkering

fueling a ship

Bureau Veritas

Paris-based classification consultancy dating from 1828

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· C ·

Carfloat

A barge equipped with tracks on which approximately 12 railroad cars can be transported in harbors on on inland waterways

CARB (ARB)

California Air Resources Board

CCSE

California Center for Sustainable Energy

CEC

California Energy Commission

CFC

Clean Fuels Consulting, Brussels

CBM

coalbed methane, once considered a nuisance and a hazard to coal miners, increasingly being recognized as a potentially significant source of natural gas fuel

CNG

compressed natural gas

cold ironing

Also known as AMP, for alternative maritime power, cold ironing is the practice of supplying electricity to moored ships so that systems stay on operation although engines are turned off.

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· D ·

DoE

U.S. Department of Energy (EERE is DoE’s office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy)

DME

dimethyl ether, a synthetic (CH3OCH3) gaseous fuel that works well as a replacement for diesel

DNV

Det Norske Veritas, a Norway-based classification society performing ship design and other services, describing itself as ‘an independent foundation with the purpose of safeguarding life, property, and the environment,’ dating back to 1864

dual fuel

usually connotes a vehicle or ship with a diesel-cycle (compression ignition, no spark) engine set up to run largely on natural gas (or propane-LPG), with diesel for starting and acceleration and as a “pilot” fuel to sustain combustion… sometimes referred to as “bi-fuel,” especially by some High Horsepower engine equipment providers

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· E ·

ECA

Emission Control Area, areas in which ship emissions are being sharply limited, prompting a switch to cleaner fuels

EEDI

The Energy Efficiency Design Index, described by the UN’s International Maritime Organization as ‘the product of a broad church united around a single objective – the reduction of GHG emissions from ships’

E&P

exploration and production, generally used to describe companies that extract and ship natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and Canada

ERRV

Emergency Rescue & Recovery Vessel

ESP

electric submersible pump

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· F ·

FLNG

floating liquefied natural gas, the concept of building a liquefaction facility on a ship … Shell claims the lead in FLNG, building the 488-by-74-meter (1,600 by 243 feet) Prelude FLNG unit to be placed in service approximately 125 miles off Australia’s northwest coast in 2017

FMC

Federal Maritime Commission, an independent regulatory agency based in Washington, D.C.

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FPSO

a floating production, storage and offloading vessel, a platform for processing, storing and trans-shipping oil

FRA

Federal Railroad Administration, an agency of DoT, the U.S. Department of Transportation

fracking

hydraulic fracturing, an energy-intensive, high-pressure technique for extracting natural gas and other fossil fuels, primarily from shale formations

FSO

a floating storage and offloading vessel, a platform for storing and trans-shipping oil

fuel cell

a device for making electricity, usually from hydrogen, with pure water the only emission — see PEM

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· G ·

GFS

gas flow switch

GLMRI

Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute, headquartered in Duluth, Minn.

GNA

Gladstein, Neandross & Associates (Santa Monica, Calif.)

GTI

Gas Technology Institute (Illinois)

GTL

gas-to-liquid, technology for making petroleum-equivalent fuels (diesel and aviation) from natural gas, often associated with a process known as Fischer-Tropsch

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· H ·

HDMA

Heavy Duty Manufacturers Association, ‘manufacturers who supply parts to the on-highway, agricultural, construction, military and mining heavy vehicle sector,’ headquartered in Research Triangle Park, N.C.

HFO

heavy fuel oil

HSE

health, safety & environment
or
health & safety executive officer

hydraulic fracturing

see fracking

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· I ·

IBIA

International Bunker Industry Association, headquartered in Southampton,England

IFO

intermediate fuel oil

IGC Code

IMO’s International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk

IMDG

International Maritime Dangerous Goods, a collection of codes that regulate the shipment of hazardous materials under SOLAS

IMO

International Maritime Organization, headquartered in London, a specialized agency of the United Nations

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· J ·

JMSDF

Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, essentially the Japanese navy

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· K ·

kWh

kilowatt hour, common way of measuring the energy capacity of a battery

KSRRA

Keystone State Railroad Association, freight carriers and short lines, non-operating railroad owners, and associate members who operate or do business in Pennsylvania, headquartered in Harrisburg

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· L ·

LATC

Los Angeles Transportation Center, a Union Pacific railyard and intermodal shipping facility in California

LNG

liquefied

LNG

liquefied natural gas — natural gas (aka methane) chilled to -162C / -260F, which reduces it volume by 600 times

length

common way of measuring a marine vessel’s size: LOA is Length Overall, and LBP is Length Between Perpendiculars: the generally shorter distance between the points where bow and stern meet the water, thus excluding the overhanging parts above

LSFO

low sulfur fuel oil

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· M ·

MARAD

Maritime Administration, an arm of the U.S. Department of Transportation

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, first adopted in November 1973 at the IMO (MARPOL is short for “marine pollution”)

MARPOL Annex VI

Area of the international regulatory scheme governing air pollution from ships, and hence the ECAs that are helping drive the move to cleaner fuels

MDO

marine diesel oil, heavier than MGO

methane

CH4, the simplest of the alkanes, and the principal constituent of natural gas

methane hydrates

methane gas locked in ice, with vast quantities distributed widely around the world in sea-floor sediments and permafrost. ‘Some believe there is enough methane in the from of hydrates,’ states an excellent Oak Ridge National Laboratory summary, ‘to supply energy for hundreds, maybe thousands, of years.’

MGO

marine gas oil, distillate-derived, roughly equivalent to diesel

Moss Rosenberg

common name for spherical LNG tanks

MREC

New England Marine Renewable Energy Center, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

MTS

the Marine Technology Society, based in Washington, D.C.

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· N ·

Nakilat

The Doha, Qatar-based Qatar Gas Transport Company, which with 54 LNG vessels says it is the largest LNG ship owner in the world.

NMA

National Mining Association, headquartered in Washington, D.C.

NREL

the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a Golden, Colo.-based unit of the U.S. Department of Energy

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· O ·

OSV

Offshore Supply Vessel

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· P ·

PCXIN

Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation, an activity of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

propane

known also as autogas, especially for road vehicles, and as LPG, for liquefied petroleum gas, a popular and economical alternative fuel

proppants

Sized particles mixed with fracturing fluid to hold fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment. In addition to naturally occurring sand grains, man-made or specially engineered proppants, such as resin-coated sand or high-strength ceramic materials like sintered bauxite, may also be used. Proppant materials are carefully sorted for size and sphericity to provide an efficient conduit for production of fluid from the reservoir to the wellbore. This definition courtesy Schlumberger

PEM

proton exchange membrane, term used to describe hydrogen-to-electricity fuel cells

PSA

pressure swing adsorption, a technology for purifying such gases as biomethane or hydrogen

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· Q ·

Q-Flex and Q-Max

large LNG carrier vessels built by Korea’s Hyundai Heavy Industries at Ulsan, and Samsung Heavy Industries and and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering on Geoje Island. Q-Flex and Q-Max ships are fitted with re-liquefaction equipment to return cargo boiloff to the cargo tanks.

Qatargas

Doha, Qatar-based Qatargas is the world’s largest LNG producer

Qatar Gas Transport

see Nakilat

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· R ·

Renewable Fuels Association

RFA, the Renewable Fuels Association, is the Washington, D.C.-based national trade association for the U.S. ethanol industry

RFID

Radio frequency identification, a technology of increasing importance for tagging equipment for purposes including inventory control and safety — RFID is an emerging aid in the regular inspection of CNG cylinders, for example

RSI

Railway Supply Institute, headquartered in Washington, D.C.

Ro-Ro

Or RORO, short for roll-on/roll-off, descriptor for vessels, often ferries, with ramps allowing cargo and vehicles to be rolled on and rolled off.

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· S ·

scfm

standard cubic feet per minute, a volumetric measurement of the flow rate of a gas, like methane, often used to express capacity of a compressor or fueling installation

SEEMP

Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan, an evolving International Maritime Organization guideline ‘to assist the industry in managing the environmental performance of ships and being a practical means for improving operational efficiencies’ (DNV)

SIGTTO

The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators, based in London

SNAME

Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, based in Jersey City, N.J.

SOLAS

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, an international maritime safety treaty

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· T ·

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tender

a railcar built specifically for carrying the locomotive’s fuel (or in the case of steam engines, water)

TEU

Unit of measurement for shipping containers and hence the capacity of a container ship or terminal. A TEU is, roughly, a 20-foot-equivalent unit. Most modern containers are 40 or 45 feet, commonly said to be two TEUs.

· U ·

USACE

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, headquartered in Washington, D.C.

unit train

also called a block train, a train on which all cars travel from and to the same destinations, often carrying a single commodity, like coal

USCG

United States Coast Guard

· V ·

VSIE

Vessel Supplies for Immediate Exportation, a category allowing equipment or supplies arriving at port to be loaded on another vessel for its exclusive use or to be exported from the same port

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· W ·

WTSA

Westbound Transpacific Stabilization Agreement, Oakland, Calif.-based organization described as a ‘research and discussion forum of container shipping lines operating in the trade lane from the U.S. to Asia’

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· Z ·

Zulu Time

Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT

Suggested additions welcome. Please e-mail us: editor@fleetsandfuels.com

Other Glossary Resources
http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/glossary.html

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